Inspection of baggage and cargo. Practically no different from medical fluoroscopy. It is applied at airports, customs offices and other places. Allows you to detect in the baggage and goods prohibited items for transportation. Recently, portable X-ray machines have appeared for examining suspicious things found in public places.
X-ray inspection. Also not far away from medical applications. It is mainly used to identify shells, gross cracks, foreign inclusions in cast products. Used when checking the quality of welds.
X-ray analysis. Allows you to judge the chemical composition of the test substance. Elements of the periodic system have characteristic spectra during x-ray irradiation. There are two methods of X-ray analysis. In the first, the substance under study is placed on the cathode in the X-ray tube, and the X-rays emitted by it are investigated. In the second, the sample is irradiated with X-rays, and the transmitted or reflected waves are examined.
X-ray analysis. Any crystal has a three-dimensional ordered structure of atoms. If we consider the crystal from different angles, then it can be distinguished many planes with the characteristic correct arrangement of atoms. X-rays have a wavelength comparable to the distances between atoms in a substance. Therefore, when X-rays are reflected from a crystal, a diffraction pattern is formed, which is characteristic of the particular sample being studied. By turning the crystal and studying the rays reflected from different planes, one can judge the structure of the sample and the distribution of atoms in it.
X-ray microscopy. X-rays have a much shorter wavelength than light waves. Therefore, they can be used to make out much smaller objects — even individual atoms. Special lenses were created for X-ray microscopes that can refract waves of such short length. An X-ray microscope is much more convenient than an electron microscope, since the samples under study are not necessary to be placed under vacuum in the study.
X-ray astronomy. Stars radiate not only in the visible, but also in the entire range of electromagnetic waves, including X-rays. X-ray telescopes are actually the opposite of x-ray microscopes. After creating for those and other special X-ray lenses, astronomers had the opportunity to study the sky in a new wavelength range with a very large angular resolution.
X-ray lasers. The shorter the wavelength, the harder it is to implement its resonant amplification - the principle of the laser. The first lasers, created in the 50s, worked in the radio band (masers). In the 60s, visible light surrendered to lasers, in the 70s - ultraviolet. And only in the late 80s there were reports of the first successful experimental X-ray lasers.
Unfortunately, many studies are classified, because X-ray lasers can be used for missile defense or, conversely, to destroy enemy targets from space. These lasers can be excited by the energy of a small nuclear explosion and transfer its focused energy over long distances. In the 60s, with the advent of lasers in the optical range, many popularizers of science compared them with Tolstoyan hyperboloid of engineer Garin, but then it was premature.
Listed here are just the basic applications of x-rays. In fact, in a hundred years they have found themselves in hundreds of directions. Some Nobel Prizes related to X-rays, eleven were received after X-rays. And the twelfth and beyond is still ahead ...